To recycle waste, it must first be sorted. Separate garbage collection operates in developed countries, therefore, its processing there is carried out efficiently and environmentally friendly. In Russia, while there is no such developed system, in this regard, in order to process mixed solid waste, they must be sorted at the plants.
The meaning and meaning of sorting
Garbage sorting is one of the steps that take place before the waste is directly processed. In the process, components are selected from the collected mixed mass of MSW, i.e. waste is divided according to various characteristics into different groups. Garbage is sorted at waste sorting and recycling plants using special equipment. The importance of sorting is to isolate certain types of waste from their mixture and send it in a convenient form for appropriate processing.
Often the term “waste sorting” is confused with the concept of “separate collection of waste”, but this is not the same thing. The second concept involves the separation of different types of scrap even at the collection stage. For this purpose, containers of different colors are installed, each of which is intended for certain wastes (plastic, paper, glass, etc.).
How is garbage sorted
We will consider the process of sorting solid waste (MSW) using the example of the recently opened largest waste sorting plant in Russia (Tyumen). The technology of this enterprise includes the following steps:
Undistributed waste goes to the conveyor. In the first workshop, manual separation of those types of garbage that can disrupt the operation of equipment: stones, metal, ceramic and other components is carried out.
Then the garbage is divided into parts depending on the diameter.
Then the waste is sorted by materials: plastic, paper, etc. In compressed bales, they are sent to garbage processing plants.
Kitchen waste sorting system
Correctly, if separate collection of garbage begins at home. For this, special devices can be used – waste sorting systems for washing. They are designs with several containers for different types of garbage.
Such systems are intended for kitchen cabinets and are installed under sinks. Designs can be retractable (on rails), there are also systems attached to the opening cabinet door. Such types of appliances are also sold in which waste is collected through the neck of a sink. Good systems are made from high-quality polymers that prevent the spread of the unpleasant odor of garbage in the apartment. Built-in sorting structures are expensive.
Garbage sorting abroad
Much better sorting of solid waste is carried out in European and other developed countries.
In Germany (as in most other European countries), the costs of sorting waste at processing plants are minimized, as Germans themselves in good faith comply with the rules for separate collection of garbage.
All residents of Germany have bins and bags in their apartments that store different types of garbage. Separately collected waste, the Germans put in street containers of different colors. Then, utilities also separate collect the waste from containers and transport the sorted garbage to waste disposal plants for specific types of waste.
A German resident who has thrown away the garbage in the wrong place will be prosecuted (usually in the form of fines). If the candy wrapper is deliberately thrown not into the ballot box, but conditionally next to it, then the German will pay a fine of 35 euros.
Residents themselves must also sort garbage in Italy (the law has come into effect relatively recently). In large cities, special tanks of different colors are installed for this purpose. Residents of very small settlements recycle various types of waste on a schedule. Dangerous and bulky rubbish Italians give in specialized points.
Waste storage is carried out using special packages. For example, organic components are discarded in biodegradable bags. For failure to comply with established requirements fines are issued.
The Czech Republic also has a law (185/2001), according to which Czechs must properly dispose of their waste. Sorting of garbage is carried out at home, then differentiated waste material is sent to the tanks for separate collection.
The rules for sorting rubbish by the Japanese differ from similar principles in European countries. But the residents themselves also sort the waste.
Usually in Japan, all garbage is divided into 4 types. Waste can be non-combustible, combustible, recyclable and bulky. Different types of garbage are thrown in different bags, which differ in color and volume. Oversized scrap is marked with a special sticker. Separate collection of waste is regulated by people working in the garbage truck.
Garbage is collected at a specific time, by which the Japanese expose their filled garbage bags. They are transparent, so employees can control how correctly sorted. Garbage bags are not accepted. The offender will need to re-sort, otherwise they may be fined.
In developed countries, waste sorting is reduced to separate collection of garbage, because the inhabitants of these states clearly comply with all requirements and are interested in preserving their ecology. Russia, however, has yet to go a difficult way towards achieving a streamlined system of separate waste collection.
MSW sorting as a business
An urgent business idea is the opening of a garbage sorting plant; city authorities can help in its implementation. However, it should be borne in mind that this is a costly business related to the preparation of a number of necessary documents, including a license for sorting household waste (if they have a hazard class 1-4).
To sort garbage, you will need special equipment, which can conditionally be divided into types:
having automatic or manual sorting:
stationary and mobile;
with a car or train.
The equipment can be European and domestic production. At the same time, the waste sorting complex includes:
a platform for the arrival of special vehicles;
overpass for waste unloading vehicles;
main production room;
warehouses for recyclable materials and land for its removal. A business plan for sorting waste can be found on the Internet.