Each of us throws out almost 400 kg of garbage (MSW) per year, but what happens to him after and how is the recycling process delivered in Russia and abroad?
The resources from which the usual plastic bottles and packaging are made are classified as non-renewable. Once the oil and oil products still run out, but think about it now. Recycling can push this off and let us find alternative sources of fuel.
Why recycle solid waste
The growth of the Earth’s population also increases the rate of production and consumption, which means that the amount of waste increases proportionally. Popular ways to dispose of municipal solid waste (MSW) – disposal and disposal – are no longer effective. Moreover, if you use only them, there is a great risk of harming the environment and turning your own habitat into a large dump.
Important! Plastic bottles and car tires, for example, decompose for at least 100 years, plastic film 200 years, and aluminum containers – 500.
The problem of processing solid waste is not a new phenomenon, and attempts have been made for a long time: measures for the collection of waste paper and scrap metal that are familiar to almost all former Soviet schoolchildren, and the use of glass containers for recycling.
Today, the situation has changed: more plastic is used in the packaging industry, which is not suitable for widespread reuse (it is quickly rubbed, deformed, becomes cloudy). And in recent years, safety standards and our requirements for the appearance of goods and packaging have grown.
The logical step in this situation is the processing of solid waste and the further use of the products of this process.
Methods and technologies of processing
Garbage collection to landfills is not the only way to get rid of it. Few people wondered what exactly happens with the contents of the garbage can after it leaves the house. But with the proliferation of the Internet, we now have access to information on environmental issues and environmental protection. Concern for the conservation of nature has even become fashionable. Now many are no longer happy that the garbage will simply be taken somewhere where it will lie without any benefit.
To reduce the expanding landfills, more than ten methods of processing solid waste are used in the world. Pyrolysis is recognized as the most promising:
Low-temperature pyrolysis, unlike conventional combustion, can reduce atmospheric pollution, but it requires preliminary sorting. One of the byproducts of the pyrolysis plant’s operation, thermal energy, is used to generate electricity and heating.
Other pyrolysis products are solid fuels suitable for replacing natural coal and wood, and liquid fuels for replacing petroleum products. The processing of solid waste into diesel fuel, suitable for internal combustion engines, was invented recently, but has already established itself as a promising technology.
Note! Secondary liquid fuel does not contain sulfur and allows engines to last much longer.
High-temperature pyrolysis is less demanding on raw materials; sorting is not necessary for it. The processing results in synthesis gas, also used as fuel, and solid non-pyrolyzed slag used in construction. Pyrolysis occurs at temperatures from 850 ° C in several stages:
sorting of garbage fragments by size, extraction of bulky items;
gasifier processing and synthesis gas production;
gas purification from sulfur, cyanide, fluorine and chlorine impurities.
Plasma processing has all the advantages of pyrolysis, but the synthesis gas is much cleaner. Thanks to the application of anaerobic processing technologies (that is, without access to air), any plasma pyrolysis processing plant is a closed system with zero emission of toxins. Plasma recycling plant can be placed even in the city.
To create a plasma, powerful electrodes are used that ionize an inert gas. The temperature in the plasma converter is from 6000 ° C and above. Heating allows you to get a solid residue completely purified from harmful impurities, suitable for construction.
When processing biodegradable solid waste, the composting method is used. As a result of the work of microorganisms, organics decompose and cross into compost, useful for enriching and fertilizing the soil.
The most global problem in the sphere is financial. Despite the abundance of articles online on the topic “build your own solid waste processing plant and start earning”, high technologies are not available to everyone. The cost of an ordinary processing plant is about 20 billion rubles; small companies cannot afford such an amount.
The profitability of the plant is 30%, which makes the industry unattractive for small and medium-sized businesses. The market for processing equipment is mainly filled with foreign manufacturers, German and Chinese companies. The need to buy equipment abroad increases costs.
In order to start a pyrolysis processing plant and take out garbage to it, you need a license. Different authorities manage the issuance, which also prevents the creation of a transparent and cost-effective system. With so many supervisory authorities, it becomes difficult to develop a business plan for a small processing plant.
The market for secondary resources is still very limited – processing companies face the problem of marketing products. Foreign experience shows that for the normal functioning of the industry, requirements are required to use secondary raw materials in production, soft loans for factories and recycled materials, and discounts in the public procurement system.
The minimum set of equipment for the primary processing of solid waste:
crushing system (shredder);
press or compactor.
There are also special devices for different types of garbage, which can not be fed into the press without preliminary processing:
shredders for paper raw materials.
Important! Puncturers and breakers are needed to avoid damage to equipment and injuries, as an air-filled bottle with a lid closed can explode in the press.
pyrolysis furnaces (needed for processing solid waste into fuel);
glass melting furnaces.
The choice of manufacturer depends on financial capabilities and location. For example, to work in the eastern part of the country it will be more profitable to order equipment in China.