Starting from January 1, 2018, all Ukrainians will have to sort the garbage, since unsorted waste will be prohibited from being shipped to landfills. Such a norm is contained in the law “On Waste”, which was adopted in 2012. Then, of course, the future of the people’s deputies seemed bright, and they assumed that after five years the norm would be able to earn.
However, today, when the term of its entry into force has come, it is already obvious that it is impossible to fulfill the letter of the law. In Ukraine there is no full-fledged waste-processing plant, and without it sorting garbage is meaningless, experts say and explain why the country loses billions of hryvnia on garbage, on which the entire civilized world earns.
In Rada – 10 garbage laws
As secretary of the Verkhovna Rada Committee on Environmental Policy Ostap Ednak told Vesti, there are now more than a dozen bills in the Rada that regulate the initiative of mandatory sorting of garbage. “Almost in each of the concepts there is a sorting of wastes and a mechanism for preventing unsorted solid household waste from entering the landfill,” Ednak said.
According to him, since September the deputies are planning to bring the garbage issue to the common denominator: “Legislatively, it is not settled – now local authorities at their own discretion and at the expense of the local budget can establish a system of separate collection of garbage and make recyclables from it, getting profit for it” . The parliament says that when the new laws are adopted, they can also review the norm in the 2012 draft – for example, postpone it.
Stimulus to sort
As explained to “Vesti” activist of the civil initiative “Green sweat” Elena Koltyk, the problem of garbage processing will not be solved until we have full-fledged garbage processing plants. Now, in fact, only one waste management company operates in Ukraine: the capital plant Energia. True, it was built during the Soviet Union, therefore it does not meet the generally accepted European standards. At the same time, there are other types of processing enterprises in the country that can extract energy from garbage. In particular, on landfills near Kiev, Brovary, Boryspil, Mariupol, Nikolaev, Ivano-Frankivsk and Vinnitsa, biogas is obtained from the waste, which is then converted into electrical energy.
At the same time, experts say that one law can not solve the problem. It takes many years to change the minds of Ukrainians, and also to defeat the garbage mafia. “Garbage can be sorted at the level of apartments, containers in the yard and sorting lines at the enterprises,” explained the ex-deputy head of the Ministry of Housing Alexander Masurchak. “The problem is that Ukrainians have small apartments and can not be sorted there.”
And the culture of behavior of Ukrainians with waste is quite different than in Europe – in our waste there is a lot of organic matter (leftovers – Authors). Such rubbish can not be sorted. Try to get our people to wash, before they throw it away, a packet of milk or a jar of cream. But the consciousness of people can be changed, encouraging them to sort – for example, if they hand over the waste sorted, then they can reduce the tariff for garbage disposal
Also, according to Mazurchak, we do not have enough containers for sorting glass, plastic and dry paper, which are easiest to process. But often even sorted garbage, reaching the landfill, again falls into the general dump.
But the main thing is that the garbage mafia is on the way of introducing recycling, the director of the Kyiv Ecological and Cultural Center Vladimir Boreiko is sure.
“In this scheme, officials who cover this business and criminals are involved. It is advantageous for them not to recycle garbage, but to go to landfills, and they earned it in various ways, “the ecologist told us. According to him, the first way is to earn money at unloading waste: “Officially, it costs about 100 hryvnia, and they take 500. Who does not want to pay, carries the garbage to a spontaneous dump, into the forest. The second – a lot of dump from the stores bring products that have expired shelf life: cosmetics, sweets, dairy products. At the dump they are taken away and taken to the markets to sell. The third is that black and non-ferrous metals, plastic, rubber are brought to the landfill with rubbish. And then the bums are picking up. For the opportunity to live and eat in a landfill, they sort everything for free. And this situation is all over Ukraine. This is a very profitable business, “says Boreiko.
In Sweden they buy trash, in Japan they build islands
In different countries, garbage is used as one of the most important resources. So, Sweden processes 99% of the garbage in the country. This is still the maximum that the countries have achieved. More than half of the waste is burned to provide 32 power plants with fuel. Their rubbish is already scarce, and they are buying waste from Great Britain, Italy, Norway and Ireland.
In Canada, for the release of valuable debris (recyclables) can be fined $ 200. The city government issues multi-colored containers, in which you need to separately fold paper, different types of plastic packaging, organic from the kitchen. If you confuse the container and throw something wrong, the machine will not take the tank. Garbage, which does not fit any type of waste, goes to the garbage disposal. If you throw out recyclable materials, they can fine.
The problem is most unique in Japan and Singapore. There waste is used to create artificial islands. So, in Singapore they are building the “garbage” island of Semakao. It is made from recycled plastic bottles, boxes of pizza and other packaging