A rhinoceros have poor eyesight, but with his weight this is not his problem. In this he very much reminds our politicians – they can afford not to notice the problem or use it in the struggle for power, but not to decide.
But this concerns us directly. If we play in associations, then the word “garbage” we easily and quickly answer – Lviv. But this is not entirely true. Lviv is just a hot spot on this issue. After a short time, “shoot” this story can anywhere. By and large, the garbage problem is globally engaged only in the Dnieper and locally – in Kiev and Vinnitsa. All the rest are potential victims.
Let’s start with figures that are brighter than any words. The landfill area in Ukraine is 7% of the total territory of the country. You will not be told about this by heroic fighters with the trade of Ukrainian land. Because the fight is well paid and you can do a rating on it, but the fact that Ukraine is drowning in garbage – politicians is not interested. Meanwhile, in our country there are 6,500 legal and about 35,000 illegal dumpsites. A number of experts and officials do not always agree with the figure of 7%, insisting that only 5% of the territory of Ukraine is actually littered. But by and large – what’s the difference? Is 5% is not enough? Yes it is the area of a European country such as Denmark.
How can Ukraine not drown in garbage? Bury it deeper? To drown in the sea? Does not save. We will soon be drowned in this very garbage for one simple reason – 95% of solid household waste (MSW) in the country are sent to landfills. Not for recycling, not burned, but simply exported to a landfill. The reason is banal – so cheaper. Communal and private firms take advantageous contract from the city authorities to remove garbage, they earn good money on this – why look for new solutions? If all the money is made exclusively on export. Only 5% of Ukrainian waste is recycled or burned. The rest is simply taken to the landfill….
What to do with Ukrainian garbage is obvious to any literate person. From the category “problem” it is necessary to translate into the category “resource”. And then we will not puzzle over where to put the garbage out of the city. We will choose who should sell it. Yes, the transition to new rails will require changes in legislation, will require changes to our approach to garbage (yes, it is easier to sort it before it is thrown away). And the investment will require, of course. But this is not our spending anymore – there are enough willing investors. Of course, you can also sort on their shoulders. But it will be more expensive. For example, in Poland, they pay about 100 euros per year for processing garbage, in Ukraine – about 30 hryvnia. What is the best way to proceed? Choose us.
Ready solutions from politicians at the state level should not be expected. Only in recent years a number of bills on the topic of garbage have been registered in the Verkhovna Rada, but all of them are closed down into one logical chain. Most of the garbage is the packaging of the goods. So you need to introduce an additional tax or a fee to the manufacturers of packages. Well, let’s say they accept it. The packaging price will rise, this seller will shift the increase to our shoulders, and the garbage will not go anywhere. Let us already recognize that there are only three main ways of recycling household waste: burial, incineration and processing. You can still run containers into space, but already a solution of the Garden level.
If we consider garbage as a resource, then the situation changes radically. Do not need to impose additional taxes, quite the contrary. We can even earn on garbage. In fact, any incinerator is actually a TPP fueled by solid waste. Of course, the process needs to be catalysed by gas, but as a result, debris burns, and we get heat and electricity. Humanists from Samopomich did not know this, but everything is interesting enough if you approach with intelligence. And Lviv could receive heat and electricity for a long time cheaper than in the market, simply by recycling garbage. And the rest of the city too.
Fears about the fact that burning garbage will turn a city into a smoke-poisoned desert is somewhat exaggerated. Current technologies allow to conduct an effective process of afterburning of organic compounds in such a way that in the section of the plant pipe their concentration does not exceed the maximum allowable emission concentration. The exhaust is cleaner than a ten year old car. Modern catalytic and plasma technologies allow completely to neutralize these emissions. In the same Sweden, such plants are built right in the city, because they do not create environmental problems. That is, if there is no long and complex history with the land allotment, the greed of the city authorities, which require an unreasonable share, then the problem is completely solved. For two years even in our realities.
There are few positive examples, but they are. Recycling of waste is successfully handled by the Energia incineration plant in Kyiv (Kyivenergo company) and a number of smaller installations in small towns. According to the Ministry of Regional Development, waste sorting lines operate in Ukraine in Kiev, Vinnytsia, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhye, Chernivtsi, Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky, Chervonograd, Chuguev, Belaya Tserkov, Bucha and several other cities. But all this is a drop in the ocean. At the same incineration enterprises do not have enough raw materials! Only in 2014 had to import 410 thousand tons of waste. Ah, Sadovoy, did you hear? People from abroad import garbage, buy for currency. Mayors of other cities, you also heard? There is no problem with new landfills, just need to learn how to sort the garbage. And you will buy it, no matter how ridiculous it may sound today. Yes, it is necessary to accustom people to sorting and separate ejection. Probably with the help of a kind word and a big fine. But as a result, Ukraine will stop drowning in garbage, and will receive heat and electricity.
At the moment, the global project for such work with garbage is implemented only by Dnipropetrovsk Regional State Administration. Kyivenergo works with the available capacity, Vinnytsia and Bucha are trying to softly switch to European standards, Lviv’s government prefers to leave the problem in politics and hunger strikes in order to save the reputation of Sadovoy, who during the years of his rule calmly refused to dozens of investors in the construction of incineration plants. It seems that the Dnieper will become an example for all, how to get out of the situation. But it is not clear – without examples, the city and regional authorities can not start work? This is not charity, but real money. Investors turn.
Advisor to the head of the Dnipro Regional Administration Viktor Puzanov believes that 7% is probably an exaggeration, but we already wrote above that 5% is a lot. Even 1% of the land can be used more efficiently. Below I quote his words without notes, because to understand the processes this gives a lot.
The main two problems. First, it has always been a mafia industry. And the role of pahan almost always belongs to the mayor or the scandalmakers. Moreover, business is divided into three components: export, acceptance to the landfill, and sorting / sale of recyclables. Removal is held by utilities, and they receive from the budget what is collected from residents – on average now it is 15 hryvnia per month per person. Then they take the garbage to the landfills, and they pay (on average, 60 hryvnia per tonne) to those who hold polygons. And then these same polygon holders catch up with homeless people (they themselves catch up, as a rule), which sort garbage by types of recyclables. This is the structure of the existing business. Now what can or can not be done.
Of course, to begin with, you must take a place between all the “players”, with the ability to influence them. Because if not, they will kill very quickly. Secondly, you must abandon the idea of making money on it – otherwise it will be delayed instantly.
Next – technology. Ten years ago, apart from burning nothing happened, and this is a) a blow to the environment (a lot of emissions), and b) expensive (energy-consuming, minus the useful product at the output). For such a technology (incineration plant), it was necessary either to raise the export tariff at times, or to receive a “green tariff”, which is very difficult for us (for wind or the sun for electricity, it’s difficult for garbage). To Kyoto money too many people. By the way, in Europe, all garbage technology is exactly this, as recently, billions were invested in such factories, and they should be repaid. They make many attempts to sell these plants entirely to third countries, for example, to us (it is from here that Filatov’s attempts to take out the plants from London are growing.) It has already failed.
But now there is technology (mainly Japanese, but there are also Canadians and Swedes worked), in which garbage is even profitable even to BUY. That is, do not take carriers from 60 UAH per ton, and pay them extra). This is the production of gas and electricity, with virtually zero emissions. And such a factory is already underway. The land is already allocated, the project is ready, and according to plan this year the beginning of construction, and in 2018 the beginning of work.
And two more companies are waiting in line for us. And very upset that did not have time first. Because there is not a lot of garbage, the plant that is in the process is designed for 600,000 tons per year, which is exactly how much the Dnieper and the region generate. But we will build the rest. First, competition, it’s always good. Secondly, they will develop existing landfills (about 20 million tons in the whole region), even if it is less profitable for them. In short, about 5 years, and in the field the problem of garbage and landfills will be forever closed.
Summarizing, I can say that at the moment the problem of turning garbage out of the problem into money is solved only by the people of Governor Reznichenko. But in fact, by and large, they have not discovered anything fundamentally new. Yes, for 10 years there were necessary technologies, before they were not. Previously, garbage was a problem, and now a resource and raw materials for profit, but it’s not a secret. This can be done in every region. In Lviv, in Kharkov, in Kiev. Of course, you can just wait and sell garbage in the Dnieper. Also money instead of polygons. But then jobs in this industry and in energy will appear only there. Mayors and governors, who are in fact patriots of their region, should think about this. For the terms pay attention separately – it takes less than a year