Trash reform old Europe took 15 years. But we now have an advantage: we can not only remember our own, Soviet, recycling experience, but also take advantage of the modern alien.
Before Germany, according to Sergey Roginko, a leading researcher at the Department of Economic Research at the Institute of Europe, RAS, waste disposal problems rose to their full height in the late 1980s.
Then there they realized the consequences of a disposable society, promising the prospect of burying the whole country as waste.
Organic – Inorganic
“In 1991, already in the united country, a dual waste collection system was introduced as a public-private partnership,” explains the expert. – A label called Green Dot was developed. This mandatory stamp on all products means that their processing has already been paid. ”
Dual means organic matter – nonorganic. Separate collection and separate processing, which is produced with the participation of private capital. The Germans, explains Roginko, led this project for quite a long time in the pilot phase. And only after 10 years, analyzing the experience, they concluded: this system begins to work. Now, he said, it has a turnover of about 50 billion euros per year.
But at first, things did not go smoothly, and there were some protests. Residents did not understand what modern technologies of storage and incineration of garbage, and in the places where the facilities were located, protested, fearing that they would worsen the environment. The Germans are supporters of a clean environment and are ready to defend it uncompromisingly.
There were very tough confrontations, but the problem was solved with the constant tightening of requirements for facilities. As a result, a modern waste management industry has been created that is safe for the environment.
Instructions to each resident
Analyzing the experience of European countries, Sergei Roginko calls to recall our own, because in Soviet times there was a system called “Recyclable”. “And we,” he says, “have completely lost this system.”
Plastic in the Soviet era, of course, was less, but separately collected scrap metal, waste paper, glass. “Everything worked perfectly,” the expert believes. “Therefore, now on a new technological base, on a new information base, on the basis of new network technologies, such work can be revived.”
In the meantime, on the instructions of the president, world experience is being studied, in particular Germany. Russian specialists come to the cities of this country, get acquainted with waste incineration plants, study landfills, and are interested in working with residents.
“In Germany, even with adolescents, work is underway,” Roginko said. – For example, there is an instruction for them on how to raise money for a new smartphone: what should be collected from waste, where to take it, and how to get money. And all this is spread through network technologies – this mechanism works well. ”
The expert clarifies that the instructions are distributed also to each resident of Germany – they tell you when and what kind of transport will come for the garbage, where to take the old furniture and things. “There are a lot of names,” says Sergey Roginko. “With us, it just flies to the dump, and on the banks of the Rhine it is going to purposefully.”